以语篇为依托基于频率的高中英语词汇教学设计
来源: | 作者:qujianfeng999 | 发布时间: 2019-05-10 | 18 次浏览 | 分享到:
一、引言 
  《普通高中英语课程标准》对高中阶段的词汇量提出了明确要求,与之相应的现行教材的词汇量也大幅增加,给词汇教学带来了很大的挑战。对于缺乏听说环境的中国学习者来说,学习英语词汇既有效又简便的方法之一就是阅读。认知理论认为当学习者获得比较系统的语篇知识后,语言学习中的词汇和语法知识等零散构件就有了一个可以依附的“坐标系”,各成分不但有自己的顺序定位,同时也形成了相互间的组合和聚合关系,共同组成一个网络系统;信息不易遗忘又便于快速提取。阅读教学中要充分利用语篇提供的“上下文”价值进行适度的词汇处理,通过不断的循环和提升,促进词汇学习。Ellis提出了以频率为中心的二语习得理论,认为频率影响着语言从输入到吸收的转化,影响着语言加工的熟练程度和流利性,在语言习得理论中占有不可替代的重要地位。罗瑜对频率作用有比较客观、全面的评价:“尽管频率不能解释所有的语言现象,其效应却体现二语习得的各个方面,频率应是二语习得理论不可或缺的部分。”可见,以语篇为依托增加词汇复现频率可以加深学生对核心词汇的理解和记忆,提高词汇教学的有效性。 
  本文以人教版高中英语Book 2 Unit 2 The Olympic Games的词汇教学设计为例,以语篇为依托,设计层层深入的词汇练习,实现奥运核心话题词汇的循环和提升,希望这节课能为高中英语一线教师提供有益的课堂教学经验。 
  二、课例简介 
  (一)教学内容分析 
  本单元的中心话题是奥运会。Reading部分是一个采访,关于现代奥运和古代奥运的异同。文章按照五个问题展开,以事实性材料为主,适合设计主旨大意和事实细节类阅读活动。在层层深入的阅读活动后,让学生运用所学词汇介绍北京冬奥会。活动中,循環出现和使用表示举办时间、参赛者、比赛项目、场馆、主办城市、奥运精神等的话题词汇,实现在具体的语境中理解和运用词汇。 
  (二)学生情况分析 
  学生的背景知识和兴趣:学生对奥运话题都很喜爱和熟悉,对奥运赛事和明星运动员都有所了解。北京冬奥会将于2022年在北京和张家口举行,学生对于将在离自己很近的城市举办奥运会充满期待,也很想成为志愿者。相信他们对本节课会很感兴趣。 
  语言知识方面:在Warming Up部分学生已经了解了描述奥运会相关的词汇,可以进行进一步的理解和掌握。 
  运用能力方面:通过搭建“脚手架”让学生在活动中反复使用话题词汇,最后在输出环节设置说的活动,提高他们实际运用语言的能力。 
  (三)教学目标分析 
  1.使学生在阅读中实现奥运话题词汇的循环与强化,提升学生自主学习能力和思维质量。 
  了解词汇:host city,athlete,medal,homeland,stadium,gymnasium,event,motto, 
  volunteer 
  模仿运用词汇:regular,admit,host,responsibility,compete 
  2.学生能运用奥运话题词汇用英语介绍北京冬奥会。 
  3.在介绍奥运情况的同时注重对学生文化品格的培养。 
  (四)教学重点、难点分析 
  1.教学重点 
  (1)模仿运用词汇:regular,admit,host,responsibility,compete 
  (2)运用奥运话题词汇用英语介绍北京冬奥会。 
  2.教学难点 
  (1)语言运用 
  (2)口语表达 
  三、课例呈现与分析 
  Step 1 Lead in 
  先提出问题What comes to your mind about the Olympic Games?待学生回答后,让学生看奥运图片并说出图片上反映的话题词汇(名词为主),难词如gymnasium,领读,最后进行小结。 
  设计意图:以图片形式导入调动学生积极性,以听说方式循环使学生初步掌握奥运话题名词词汇。 
  Step 2 Fast reading 
  Ⅰ.Read the text quickly to find the main idea of the text. 
  The text is mainly about the similarities and  about the ancient and modern Olympics. 
  Ⅱ.Scan the text, find the specific information and fill in the blanks with one word or a number according to the text. 
  The differences between the ancient and modern Olympics: 
  设计意图:通过查读、跳读使学生掌握文章大意和主要信息,同时通过填表练习,复现athlete,medal,event,host(出现host动词形式),为后面深入学习搭好“脚手架”。 
  Step 3 Careful Reading 
  Task 1 Read the first question of Pausanias and Li Yan's answer carefully and then answer the questions: 
  (1)What does “competitor” mean?Can every athlete be allowed to be a competitor?巩固练习:I  a member of our school's basketball club last week. 
  (2)Can you replace “on a regular basis” with another word form of “regular”? 
  The Olympic Games are held every four years on a regular basis. 
  =The Olympic Games are held every four years 
  巩固练习:Buses run regularly between the stadiums for free.(翻译句子) 
  Task 2 Read the second and third questions of Pausanias and Li Yan's answers carefully and then fill in the blanks according to the text. 
  Many  such as skiing and ice skating need snow and ice in the Winter Olympics. For each Olympics, a special village is built for them to live in, a main reception building, several  for competitions and a  as well. 
  Task 3 Read the fourth question of Pausanias and Li Yan's answer carefully and then think about the question: Why does Pausanias think Beijing should feel proud? 
  Then, summarize the meanings of the following words. 
  (1)host/hostess 
  ①It is an honour to host the Olympic Games. 
  ②Beijing is the host city of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. 
  ③You Ning is a host and Weng Xiaomeng is a hostess of Sports Events of CCTV5. 
  小结: 
  host v. n.①② 
  hostess n.② 
  巩固练习: 
  ①Do you want to be a  or  of CCTV5 to host the programmess of sports events? 
  ②Tokyo will be the  city of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games. 
  ③ the Olympic Games is a great honour and a great responsibility for a country. 
  (2)responsible/responsibility 
  The judge should be responsible for the competition and have a strong sense of responsibility. 
  responsible adj. be responsible for 
  responsibility n. a sense of responsibility 
  鞏固练习: 
  How to be a responsible host city for Beijing? 
  As the host city, Beijing should  (负责) the safety of all the athletes and viewers. It can offer good diets and gyms, and regular physical examination to make sure that they can keep a good state to compete for medals in the events for their homelands. The people who can be admitted as volunteers should also  (有很强的责任感). 
  小结: 
  responsible adj. be responsible for 
  responsibility n. a sense of responsibility 
  自主学习 
  Look at the following sentences from the text.Summarize the usages of “compete” and then finish the exercises. 
  (1)How can the runners enjoy competing in winter? 
  (2)Do you compete for prize money too?
(3)Our Greek cities used to compete against each other just for the honour of winning. 
  (4)Only athletes who have reached the agreed standard for their event will be admitted as competitors. 
  (5)Instead there are competitions like skiing and ice skating which need snow and ice. 
  (6)There's as much competition among countries to host the Olympics as to win Olympic medals. 
  小结: 
  compete for  compete against 
  compete v.→competition n.→competitor n. 
  巩固练习: 
  (1)The footballers are competing  the honour of winning  each other in the UEFA Champions League (欧洲冠军联赛). 
  (2)翻译句子 
  In this competitive world, we are all competitors and everybody competes against each other.We should make a healthy atmosphere (氛围) of competition. 
  (该部分由学生自主学习完成后找一名同学进行小结并给出答案,教师根据课堂反应情况进行必要的补充。) 
  设计意图:学生通过观察、比较、分析、归纳,总结话题词汇中主要动词和形容词的用法,同时促进学生的思维质量的提高。 
  Task 4语篇填空 
  The Olympic Games are held every four years on a 1(regularly) basis.All countries can take part if their 2 (athlete) reach the standard and are 3 (admit) as the competitors.A special village is built for the 4 (compete) to live in, a main reception building, several 5(stadium) for competitions, and 6(gymnasium) as well.It's a great honour 7 (host) the Olympic Games.There's as much 8 (compete) among countries to host the Olympics as winning Olympic 9 (medal).The 10 of the Olympic Games is: Swifter, Higher and Stronger. 
  设计意图:使学生在語篇中循环运用词汇。 
  4个Task的阅读和词汇练习由易到难,层层深入,所有例句和练习(包括单句填空、完成句子、句型转换、回答问题、翻译)都围绕奥运话题词汇设计,学生的思维量也逐渐增加。Task 3后设计小语篇循环练习增加对本节课前半程所学词汇的练习力度,通过增加词汇的复现频率和不断的刺激,教师帮助学生加深了对词汇的理解和记忆。 
  Step 4 Speaking 
  The 2022 Winter Olympic Games will be held in Beijing and Zhangjiakou.You will be a volunteer and you will introduce them to a group of foreign visitors.Try to use the following words. 
  设计意图:使学生运用话题词汇用英语介绍北京冬奥会,同时突出本届冬奥会的中国元素,实现话题词汇的循环和提升,同时注意对学生文化品格的培养。 
  鉴于课堂时间有限,这部分设计小组活动,每个小组集中精力完成表格中的一部分,群策群力,最后每个小组的speaker展示小组活动成果,共同串成一篇解说词,为课后作业的写作搭好了“脚手架”。课堂实践证明有了这个Word Bank,学生有了“抓手”,小组分到具体可操作性强的任务,都踊跃参与,基础差的学生也有话可说,课堂气氛很热烈。在最后的展示环节学生能较好地将本节课学到的奥运核心词汇应用于口语表达中。正是前面层层铺垫,使这些词汇循环出现和使用,学生才能在这个环节很好地输出,实现奥运核心话题词汇的循环和提升。 
  Step 5 Homework 
  你的英国朋友David给你发来一封电子邮件,向你询问2022北京冬奥会的情况,请根据Speaking部分的内容给他写一封回信。100词左右。 
  设计意图:使学生能够运用话题词汇书面介绍北京冬奥会,进一步实现话题词汇的循环和提升。 
  四、结语 
  本节课基于频率理论,以语篇为依托,围绕奥运话题,在跳读、查读和细读课文的同时通过层层深入的词汇练习(包括单句填空、完成句子、句型转换、回答问题、翻译),使学生大量反复地接触和练习奥运核心话题词汇,最后通过作为志愿者介绍北京冬奥会利用本节课学到的Word Bank进行输出,实现了奥运核心话题词汇的循环和提升。从课后测试反馈来看,学生对该部分词汇掌握情况良好,正确率较高。另外,学生对于这节课学到的词汇印象深刻,提高了词汇课堂教学的有效性。 
  参考文献 
  [1]Vivian Cook. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2000. 
  [2]Ellis,N.C. Reflections on Frequency Effects in Language Processing[J].SSLA,24.2(2002):297-339. 
  [3]董燕萍.心理语言学与外语教学[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2009. 
  [4]罗瑜.频率效应在二语习得中的作用[J].重庆大学学报(社会科学版),2005(1):92-95. 
  [5]潘云梅等.英语阅读教学中的词汇处理:循环与提升[M].杭州:浙江大学出版社,2013.